Appliance Service Technician Competencies, 2004h HOME
Appliances Professional (C.A.P.)
Service Technician Specialty
Project Manager 2003 for this Competency: Ron Sawyer, CAP, PSA Approved by
NCEE August 12th, 2004
the differences and relationships between matter and energy
Demonstrate the effects of positive and negative charges.
Describe atoms, electrons, and electron flow.
1.4 List examples of magnetism and magnetic forces and discuss the effects on electrons
1.5 Solve math problems involving voltage, current and resistance.
Identify resistors by their color code.
List various methods by which voltage is generated
List battery types and discuss the advantages and
disadvantages of each
Compare direct and alternating current.
Calculate circuit values using Ohm's Law and Kirchoff's
Describe the difference between series, parallel, and
Compare fuses, fuse types, and circuit breakers.
Describe voltage and power transmission and how the average
home is wired.
Compare wire sizes and their relationship to current
Discuss the effects of capacitance and induction.
Sketch a circuit of a basic AC to DC power supply.
Describe voltage rectification and current filtration
List the various electronic components which are used as
switches and explain how each are used
Discuss electronic components and how they are used to replace
switches and other circuit control devices (triacs/diacs/transistors/diodes)
Compare electromagnetic devices, including transformers,
motors, and solenoids.
Identify the various types of motors, motor starting, and
motor protection devices.
Describe "black box" electronic devices. Explain
how the inputs and output principle can be used to diagnose most electronic
Interpret electrical diagrams and schematics
Demonstrate the use of, schematic and ladder diagrams to
diagnosis circuit problems.
Describe the use of bearings, seals and drive couplings
Explain the differences between universal joints, linkages
and levers mechanisms, and cam assemblies
Recognize various hinges/latches/fastening devices.
Describe the functions of each
Describe the use of a counter balance
Compare various drive systems including belt, direct, gear,
and variable speed.
Describe the use of a flywheel application
Explain the use of clutches/brakes/transmissions
Describe the effects of torque.
Describe the use of drums bearings, drum rollers and
Describe the effects of heat and heat transfer. Discuss how
heat is measured
Describe calories, sensible and latent heat using British
Appliance Tools and Equipment
required hand tools used in appliance servicing
3.2 Demonstrate the use a multimeter, amprobe, and other test equipment in the diagnosis of electrical circuit problems.
Differentiate between, shorted, open and non-functioning circuits
Demonstrate the use of soldering techniques
Demonstrate the use of basic diagnostic principles.
Localize circuit faults to individual component(s). Replace
the faulty component(s). Retest circuits
Describe various types of thermometers (Laser, Digital and
Mercury) used in the servicing of appliances.
Describe the purpose of a Wattmeter.
Explain the use of leak detection devices for CO2 and
Describe the use of a manometer
3.10 Name the tools and equipment used in refrigeration servicing (including gauges, leak detectors, vacuum pump, psychrometer, recovery pump,
and recovery storage)
Discuss the safety procedures associated with transporting,
storage and use of a torch in the repair of appliances.
Bend copper and aluminum tubing.
Cut tubing and pipes with hacksaws or tubing cutter
Braze copper tubing
Cut PVC pipes to correct length. Join PVC pipes
4.0 Appliance Handling and Servicing Practices
4.1 Demonstrate proper lifting techniques.
Describe floor protection when moving an appliance for
Explain the proper procedures to be followed in removing
built-in appliances for service.
Describe the safe and proper use of an appliance hand truck
when moving an appliance up and down stairs
List the precautions that must be taken to protect
appliances before moving occurs.
Describe various laws governing appliance disposal. (Freon
removal, door removal, etc.)
Describe proper disposal procedures for mercury,
refrigerants, batteries, chemicals and oils.
Explain the purpose of using safety belts
Describe different types of ladders and safety procedures in the
use of each type.
Explain the need for grounding (human)
Describe the use of different types of fire extinguishers
Explain spontaneous combustion
Describe current leakage
Describe vehicle/work area safety procedures.
Describe DOT and EPA regulations that impact transportation and
proper handling of chemicals such as refrigerants, acetylene, nitrogen, etc.
5.9 Describe personal safety and work practices (Using insulated tools, protective clothing.)
5.10 Describe safety procedures to be utilized when using pressurized fluids
5.11 Describe proper cylinder handling/transportation in service vehicle
Describe the need for pressure regulators.
Explain the use of cleaning chemicals/MSDS
Recognize safety markings (i.e. tag outs, warning signs, MSDS, OSHA
Describe the use of available safety equipment such as ventilators,
fire extinguishers, gloves, etc.
Describe the use of shut-off devices (circuit breakers, gas and
water valves, etc.)
Discuss protective measures against high voltage.
Basics of house wiring
Discuss how electric power is transmitted
Sketch a basic house wiring diagram including distribution panels
and circuit breakers sizes
Explain the use of wire sizes, circuit design, switching devices,
receptacles and lighting circuits
Describe grounding requirements and personal electrical safety
Describe a ground fault circuit interrupter, GFCI's
Explain the purposes of the National Electric Code
Recognize when the assistance of an electrician is called for
Demonstrate the use of approved devices to splice, connect and join wires
7.0 Basic Principles of Plumbing & Water Supply
Describe a domestic water supply. Name the different pipe sizes used in
Describe a domestic drain system including proper venting.
Demonstrate the proper procedure to cut and thread iron pipe.
Solder copper tubing.
Describe back flow preventors
Use a compression fitting on Aluminum pipe.
Make proper connections on PVC pipe.
Describe different drains and traps.
Explain National Plumbing Codes and existence of licensing and
permit requirements in all communities served
Explain safety procedures to be used when working with water
Explain the need for
water testing procedures especially for dishwashers
Explain water filter
systems used in appliances. Discuss reverse osmosis
Explain the cause of
noisy pipes. Discuss the use of Water Hammer Arresters
Describe basic safety procedures used when servicing refrigeration
Identify refrigeration terminology and definitions
Identify refrigeration components.
Describe the functions of refrigeration components
Describe the relationship between temperature and pressure.
Demonstrate the use PT chart
Explain the difference between heat loads and cooling loads
Describe the theory of electronic cooling
Explain atmospheric pressure. Demonstrate the use of gauges.
Sketch a basic refrigeration system
Demonstrate the use of metering devices
Describe the use and sizing of
compressors/cross-referencing/types/high pressure dome/low pressure dome
Describe the different styles of refrigerators
Describe condenser types
Explain the reason for evaporator locations
Describe the purpose of a heat exchanger
Explain the function of a filter drier
Explain the theory of gas-fired refrigeration (ammonia etc.)
Especially if servicing RVs/trailers/motor homes
Refrigerant handling and recovery
Describe federal EPA Laws and Regulations associated with these laws.
Describe the difference between passive and active recovery
Describe the difference between recovery, recycling and reclaiming.
Describe a retrofit
Explain the purpose of refrigerant oils
Explain the differences between CFC/HCFC/HFC. Discuss the uses of
Refrigerator/Sealed system Repair
Describe the theory of operation of a domestic refrigerator.
Demonstrate sealed system diagnostic procedures for
Explain the different leak detection
Access a sealed system.
Remove access port upon completion,
Explain triple evacuation
Describe different methods
of charging/procedures associated with each.
Describe different methods
of defrost and the components associated with each.
temperature sensing methods
Explain different air distribution methods (inside and outside of
Interpret wiring, schematic and ladder diagrams to diagnose
Describe different oil-cooling methods
Explain the purpose of perimeter or yoder loops
Air conditioning and Dehumidifier Principles
Describe the theory of operation of a domestic window air conditioner'
Describe the differences between air conditioning and dehumidifying.
Ice Machines, Freestanding and Under-counter
Explain the theory of operation used in most domestic icemakers.
Explain how water is distributed into the icemaker
Describe proper procedures for cleaning and sanitizing icemakers.
Identify the components and control circuits of a domestic icemaker.
Discuss the purpose of wine coolers
Explain the theory of operation of wine coolers
Top Loading Washers
Explain theory of operation for top loading washers
a top-loading washer.
Explain how incoming water is distributed from inlet to tub.
the operation of a water level control
the function of a water temperature control
direct/neutral drain systems
different brake systems used in top loading washers.
Describe the methods of counter balance
Outline the different water filtration methods
Describe the use of clutch systems
Explain the operation of electric water valves
Explain operating principles associated with the transmission
Describe the different drive methods.
Demonstrate ability to use a cam chart.
Interpret schematic diagrams
List clean-ability problems. Describe corrective actions
Front Loading Washers
State the requirements for the installation of front-loading washers
Explain differences between vertical and horizontal washing systems
Describe the operation of water fill and level control
Outline the operation of the temperature control
Describe the methods of drain systems
Explain braking system methods.
Describe methods of counter balance
Describe water filtration methods
Describe Drive systems
Explain the operation of electronic controls
Explain the use of DC motors
Discuss how cycle sequence, wiring, schematic and ladder diagrams can be
used in troubleshooting electrical failures
Explain the need for door seals
Dryers (Gas & Electric)
Installation procedures. State the venting requirements in the installation of
Explain theory of operation
of gas/electric dryers.
Explain the principles of
combustion. Discuss the operation of gas valves and burner assemblies.
Describe the operation of
electric heating elements
Describe drum drive systems
Discuss the relationships
between electrical power and heating elements
procedures used in gas burner systems
Describe air handling,
distribution and venting (blowers, fans, seals)
Outline the purpose of
electrical and thermal safety devices
Describe Glow Bar ignition systems
16.11 Discuss how cycle sequence, wiring, schematic and ladder diagrams can be used in troubleshooting electrical failures
Explain the theory of operation of combination washer/dryers
Discuss the purposes of combination washer/dryers
Explain dishwasher theory of operation
Describe Installation requirements
Explain water distribution from inlet to tub including wash cycle
18.4 Explain water hardness/temperature/detergent and wetting agents. Explain how detergents affect washing performance
18.5 Describe the operation of timers, mechanical and electronic types.
Identify Option, float and selector switches. Discuss the operation
18.7 Identify water system components and controls such as fill valves, drain hoses, check valves, siphon breaks, etc. Discuss the operation and
purposes of each
Explain the purpose of Pumps, spray arms, food choppers, motors,
filtering systems and sumps
Describe the Dispensing systems
Describe Drying systems used in dishwashers.
Explain the use of Door seals and latching mechanisms
18.12 Use schematic, wiring, timer sequence, cycle option and other diagrams and charts to diagnose dishwasher failures
Water Heaters & Dispensers
Describe the theory of operation
of domestic hot water heaters.
Describe plumbing and
installation requirements of hot water dispensers.
Describe the safety devices used
in water heaters.
Discuss water hardness and
Explain the combustion process in
gas hot water heaters.
Explain requirements for venting,
(direct and chimney).
Describe the operation of gas
Explain the operation of electric
heating elements and thermostats.
Explain the filtering
systems methods (i.e. reverse osmosis, carbon, rust and chemical removal).
Describe the operation of isolation and check valves
Describe the operation of pressure relief valves
the operation of a food waste disposer
20.2 Describe the differences between continuous-feed and batch type units
20.3 Explain the operation of motor-reversing switches
20.4 Describe the operation of motor and grinding mechanisms
Exhaust Hoods, Venting & Air Movement
Explain the basic operation of range top venting systems
Describe the basic Installation requirements and limitations
of range top venting system.
Describe the operation of re-circulating, direct vent and
down flow type venting.
Describe the purpose of filters used in venting systems.
Describe the operation the motors and blowers used in venting
Explain the purpose of the various switches
and controls used with venting systems.
the basic operation of a central vacuum system including bag and bagless types.
Demonstrate an understanding of system
design & installation
Describe the operation of motors & controls used in
central vacuum systems.
Describe the operation of motorized and powered accessories
for vacuum systems.
the basic operation of a trash compactor.
Describe the operation of ram drive systems.
Describe the operation of electrical and mechanical
controls (cycle selector and option switches).
Explain the operation of reversing and interlock
24.1 State the functions of ironers
Describe the operation of ironing systems (including dry press and steam press)
(including dry press and steam press)
Describe the safe and proper methods used in the servicing
of gas appliances
Explain the properties of natural gas and liquefied petroleum (LP)
including their chemical
heating value, specific gravity, limits of flammability, and their burning
25.3 Explain how gas pressure is measured (including normal and high altitude applications)
25.4 Explain how supply gas flow is regulated
Demonstrate how to correct lifting burner flames, flashback, extinction
pop, floating flames, port loading,
an yellow tipping of flames. Primary and secondary air supplies
Differentiate between complete and incomplete combustion.
(including how primary, secondary, and excess air affects combustion)
Describe the operation of burners (atmospheric and power), burner components
(including fixed and
adjustable orifices), input and output ratings and gas flow rates.
the operation of gas ignition systems
and controls (standing pilot, glow bar, electronic spark for
both oven and surface burner systems.
leak detection and the proper use of leak detection equipment
how State and Local regulations may affect product installations
25.11 Describe gas
conversion (LP to natural gas, natural gas to LP).
25.12 Describe the
operation of timers, electronic range controls, and
range clocks that are used in gas ranges, ovens,
and cook tops
Describe the operation of
electrical controls for gas ranges (thermostats, flame proving sensors,
devices, selector switches).
Describe the operation of
oven cleaning, including types of oven and range top surfaces, locking
mechanisms and their associated controls.
Describe convection gas ranges and oven cooking principles and their
components (fans, controls).
down-draft gas ranges and cook tops, including installation and venting
25.17 Discuss how the effects of Carbon Monoxide are measured. (Describe venting and ventilation, including natural draft action, power vents, and
25.18 Explain temperature limitation and proper test procedure for product surface temperatures and associated cabinet temperatures as regulated
by Underwriters Laboratories & AGA (American Gas Assn.)
25.19 Describe how electrical schematics, technical drawings, switch position charts and wiring diagrams are used to troubleshoot gas ranges, ovens
and cook tops
Electric Cooking Principles
Describe the safe and proper procedures used in the
servicing of electric appliances
26.2 Name the electrical controls used in electric cookers. (thermostats, selector switches, infinite switches, heat relays, heat sensors,
oven temperature protection, electronic range and oven controls). Describe the operation of each
Describe the operation of
heating elements of electric ranges, ovens, and cook tops. (oven and surface
Describe the operation of
systems associated with self-clean cycle
26.5 Describe oven
cleaning, including types of oven and range top surfaces, locking mechanisms and
oven temperature controls.
26.7 Describe the operation of overheat protection systems as used in smooth-top ranges.
26.8 Describe the purpose
of seals, heat shields, insulation and gaskets in gas and electric ranges and ovens
their impact on performance and surface temperatures
and cook tops
Microwave Cooking Principles
Describe the safe and proper servicing of microwave
Describe the operation of safety interlock systems used
Explain high voltage power supplies and safety precautions
necessary to properly service high voltage and current supplies.
Describe the operation of microwave oven controls
(electro-mechanical and electronic timers, and humidity, weight and temperature
27.5 Describe the operation of microwave generation systems, microwave propagation, and microwave distributions systems (magnetrons,
wave-guides, stirrer blades and carrosels)
27.6 Describe how electrical schematics, technical drawings, wiring diagrams and switch position charts of microwave ovens are used in
Describe survey meters, leakage, emission standards and
Describe the operation of combination conventional,
convection and microwave ovens.
venting and exhaust provisions and filter panels
Describe the safe and proper servicing of induction ranges.
Describe the operation of basic induction range
principles, including installation requirements.
Describe the operation of electrical
controls used with induction range systems.
Explain Cookware selection for use with an induction range.
28.5 Describe how electrical schematics, technical drawings, switch position charts and wiring diagrams of induction ranges are used in
29.1 Describe operating principles of
electric ranges and ovens. State the functions of the fans and controls in the
operation of electric ranges and ovens
Explain the principles of High Velocity convection cooking
(End of Appliance Service Technician Competencies 2004)