Appliance Service Technician Competencies, 2004h                                                   HOME

Competency Requirements - 2004


Certified Appliances Professional (C.A.P.)

Consumer Appliance Service Technician Specialty

NCEE Project Manager 2003 for this Competency: Ron Sawyer, CAP, PSA  Approved by NCEE August 12th, 2004

 Core Knowledge

 1.0       Basic Electricity

    1.1           Explain the differences and relationships between matter and energy

    1.2                Demonstrate the effects of positive and negative charges.

    1.3                Describe atoms, electrons, and electron flow.

    1.4                List examples of magnetism and magnetic forces and discuss the effects on electrons

   1.5           Solve math problems involving voltage, current and resistance.

    1.6                Identify resistors by their color code.

    1.7                List various methods by which voltage is generated

    1.8                List battery types and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each

    1.9                Compare direct and alternating current.

    1.10             Calculate circuit values using Ohm's Law and Kirchoff's Law.

    1.11             Describe the difference between series, parallel, and combination circuits.

    1.12             Compare fuses, fuse types, and circuit breakers.

    1.13             Describe voltage and power transmission and how the average home is wired.

    1.14             Compare wire sizes and their relationship to current carrying capabilities.

    1.15             Discuss the effects of capacitance and induction.

    1.16             Sketch a circuit of a basic AC to DC power supply.

    1.17             Describe voltage rectification and current filtration

    1.18             List the various electronic components which are used as switches and explain how each are used

    1.19             Discuss electronic components and how they are used to replace switches and other circuit control devices (triacs/diacs/transistors/diodes)

    1.20             Compare electromagnetic devices, including transformers, motors, and solenoids.

    1.21             Identify the various types of motors, motor starting, and motor protection devices.

    1.22             Describe "black box" electronic devices. Explain how the inputs and output principle can be used to diagnose most electronic control boards

    1.23             Interpret electrical diagrams and schematics

    1.24             Demonstrate the use of, schematic and ladder diagrams to diagnosis circuit problems.

 2.0                Basic Mechanics

    2.1                Describe Gravity/Elasticity/Pneumatics/Hydraulics

    2.2                Describe the use of bearings, seals and drive couplings

    2.3                Explain the differences between universal joints, linkages and levers mechanisms, and cam assemblies

    2.4                Recognize various hinges/latches/fastening devices. Describe the functions of each

    2.5                Describe the use of a counter balance

    2.6                Compare various drive systems including belt, direct, gear, and variable speed.

    2.7                Describe the use of a flywheel application

    2.8                Explain the use of clutches/brakes/transmissions

    2.9                Describe the effects of torque.

    2.10             Describe the use of drums bearings, drum rollers and glides.

    2.11             Describe the effects of heat and heat transfer. Discuss how heat is measured

    2.12             Describe calories, sensible and latent heat using British Thermal Units


3.0            Appliance Tools and Equipment


    3.1           Name the required hand tools used in appliance servicing

    3.2        Demonstrate the use a multimeter, amprobe, and other test equipment in the diagnosis of electrical circuit problems. 

                  Differentiate between, shorted, open and non-functioning circuits                                           

    3.3                Demonstrate the use of soldering techniques

    3.4                Demonstrate the use of basic diagnostic principles.

    3.5                Localize circuit faults to individual component(s). Replace the faulty component(s). Retest circuits

    3.6                Describe various types of thermometers (Laser, Digital and Mercury) used in the servicing of appliances.

    3.7                Describe the purpose of a Wattmeter.

    3.8                Explain the use of leak detection devices for CO2 and combustible gases.

    3.9                Describe the use of a manometer

    3.10             Name the tools and equipment used in refrigeration servicing (including gauges, leak detectors, vacuum pump, psychrometer, recovery pump,

                   and recovery storage)

    3.11             Discuss the safety procedures associated with transporting, storage and use of a torch in the repair of appliances.

    3.12             Bend copper and aluminum tubing.

    3.13             Cut tubing and pipes with hacksaws or tubing cutter

    3.14             Braze copper tubing

    3.15             Cut PVC pipes to correct length. Join PVC pipes


4.0          Appliance Handling and Servicing Practices


   4.1       Demonstrate proper lifting techniques.

    4.2                Describe floor protection when moving an appliance for service.

    4.3                Explain the proper procedures to be followed in removing built-in appliances for service.

    4.4                Describe the safe and proper use of an appliance hand truck when moving an appliance up and down stairs

    4.5                List the precautions that must be taken to protect appliances before moving occurs.

    4.6                Describe various laws governing appliance disposal. (Freon removal, door removal, etc.)

    4.7                Describe proper disposal procedures for mercury, refrigerants, batteries, chemicals and oils.


5.0          Safety


    5.1           Explain the purpose of using safety belts

    5.2                Describe different types of ladders and safety procedures in the use of each type.

    5.3                Explain the need for grounding (human)

    5.4                Describe the use of different types of fire extinguishers

    5.5                Explain spontaneous combustion

    5.6                Describe current leakage

    5.7                Describe vehicle/work area safety procedures.

    5.8                Describe DOT and EPA regulations that impact transportation and proper handling of chemicals such as refrigerants, acetylene, nitrogen, etc.

    5.9                Describe personal safety and work practices (Using insulated tools, protective clothing.)

    5.10         Describe safety procedures to be utilized when using pressurized fluids

    5.11             Describe proper cylinder handling/transportation in service vehicle

    5.12             Describe the need for pressure regulators.

    5.13             Explain the use of cleaning chemicals/MSDS

    5.14             Recognize safety markings (i.e. tag outs, warning signs, MSDS, OSHA requirements)

    5.15             Describe the use of available safety equipment such as ventilators, fire extinguishers, gloves, etc.

    5.16             Describe the use of shut-off devices (circuit breakers, gas and water valves, etc.)

    5.17             Discuss protective measures against high voltage.


6.0          Basics of house wiring


    6.1           Discuss how electric power is transmitted

    6.2               Sketch a basic house wiring diagram including distribution panels and circuit breakers sizes

    6.3                Explain the use of wire sizes, circuit design, switching devices, receptacles and lighting circuits

    6.4                Describe grounding requirements and personal electrical safety

    6.5                Describe a ground fault circuit interrupter, GFCI's

    6.6                Explain the purposes of the National Electric Code

    6.7                Recognize when the assistance of an electrician is called for

    6.8           Demonstrate the use of approved devices to splice, connect and join wires and cables


7.0          Basic Principles of Plumbing & Water Supply

    7.1           Describe a domestic water supply. Name the different pipe sizes used in plumbing practice

    7.2                Describe a domestic drain system including proper venting.

    7.3                Demonstrate the proper procedure to cut and thread iron pipe.

    7.4                Solder copper tubing.

    7.5                Describe back flow preventors

    7.6                Use a compression fitting on Aluminum pipe.

    7.7                Make proper connections on PVC pipe.

    7.8                Describe different drains and traps.

    7.9                Explain National Plumbing Codes and existence of licensing and permit requirements in all communities served

    7.10             Explain safety procedures to be used when working with water supplies.

    7.11             Explain the need for water testing procedures especially for dishwashers

    7.12             Explain water filter systems used in appliances. Discuss reverse osmosis

    7.13             Explain the cause of noisy pipes. Discuss the use of Water Hammer Arresters


Cooling Products


8.0          Basic Refrigeration


    8.1          Describe basic safety procedures used when servicing refrigeration products.

    8.2          Identify refrigeration terminology and definitions

    8.3                Identify refrigeration components.

    8.4                Describe the functions of refrigeration components

    8.5                Describe the relationship between temperature and pressure. Demonstrate the use PT chart

    8.6                Explain the difference between heat loads and cooling loads

    8.7                Describe the theory of electronic cooling

    8.8                Explain atmospheric pressure. Demonstrate the use of gauges.

    8.9                Sketch a basic refrigeration system

    8.10             Demonstrate the use of metering devices

    8.11             Describe the use and sizing of compressors/cross-referencing/types/high pressure dome/low pressure dome

    8.12             Describe the different styles of refrigerators

    8.13             Describe condenser types

    8.14             Explain the reason for evaporator locations

    8.15             Describe the purpose of a heat exchanger

    8.16             Explain the function of a filter drier

    8.17             Explain the theory of gas-fired refrigeration (ammonia etc.) Especially if servicing RVs/trailers/motor homes


9.0              Refrigerant handling and recovery


    9.1           Describe federal EPA Laws and Regulations associated with these laws.

    9.2                Describe the difference between passive and active recovery

    9.3                Describe the difference between recovery, recycling and reclaiming.

    9.4                Describe a retrofit

    9.5                Explain the purpose of refrigerant oils

    9.6                Explain the differences between CFC/HCFC/HFC. Discuss the uses of each


10.0            Refrigerator/Sealed system Repair


    10.1           Describe the theory of operation of a domestic refrigerator.

    10.2           Demonstrate sealed system diagnostic procedures for restriction/partial-restriction/non-condensable/inefficient compressor/low-charge/over-charge

    10.3            Explain the different leak detection methods/procedures

    10.4            Access a sealed system. Remove access port upon completion,

    10.5            Explain dehydration

    10.6            Explain triple evacuation

    10.7            Describe different methods of charging/procedures associated with each.

    10.8            Describe different methods of defrost and the components associated with each.

    10.9            Describe different temperature sensing methods

    10.10             Explain different air distribution methods (inside and outside of cabinet)

    10.11             Interpret wiring, schematic and ladder diagrams to diagnose electrical problems.

    10.12             Describe different oil-cooling methods

    10.13            Explain the purpose of perimeter or yoder loops


11.0        Air conditioning and Dehumidifier Principles


    11.1           Describe the theory of operation of a domestic window air conditioner'

    11.2           Describe the differences between air conditioning and dehumidifying.


12.0        Ice Machines, Freestanding and Under-counter


    12.1            Explain the theory of operation used in most domestic icemakers.

    12.2            Explain how water is distributed into the icemaker

    12.3            Describe proper procedures for cleaning and sanitizing icemakers.

    12.4            Identify the components and control circuits of a domestic icemaker.


13.0        Wine Coolers


    13.1             Discuss the purpose of wine coolers

    13.2             Explain the theory of operation of wine coolers


Cleaning Products


14.0        Top Loading Washers


    14.1          Explain theory of operation for top loading washers

    14.2          Install a top-loading washer.

    14.3          Explain how incoming water is distributed from inlet to tub.

    14.4          Describe the operation of a water level control

    14.5          Explain the function of a water temperature control

    14.6          Compare direct/neutral drain systems

    14.7          Describe different brake systems used in top loading washers.

    14.8          Describe the methods of counter balance

    14.9          Outline the different water filtration methods

    14.10        Describe the use of clutch systems

    14.11        Explain the operation of electric water valves

    14.12        Explain operating principles associated with the transmission

    14.13        Describe the different drive methods.

    14.14        Demonstrate ability to use a cam chart.

    14.15        Interpret schematic diagrams

    14.16        List clean-ability problems. Describe corrective actions


15.0        Front Loading Washers


    15.1                State the requirements for the installation of front-loading washers

    15.2                Explain differences between vertical and horizontal washing systems

    15.3                Describe the operation of water fill and level control

    15.4                Outline the operation of the temperature control

    15.5                Describe the methods of drain systems

    15.6                Explain braking system methods.

    15.7                Describe methods of counter balance

    15.8                Describe water filtration methods

    15.9                Describe Drive systems

    15.10              Explain the operation of electronic controls

    15.11              Explain the use of DC motors

    15.12              Discuss how cycle sequence, wiring, schematic and ladder diagrams can be used in troubleshooting electrical failures

    15.13              Explain the need for door seals


16.0        Dryers (Gas & Electric)


    16.1            Describe proper Installation procedures. State the venting requirements in the installation of dryers

    16.2            Explain theory of operation of gas/electric dryers.

    16.3            Explain the principles of combustion. Discuss the operation of gas valves and burner assemblies.

    16.4            Describe the operation of electric heating elements

    16.5            Describe drum drive systems

    16.6            Discuss the relationships between electrical power and heating elements

    16.7            Describe troubleshooting procedures used in gas burner systems

    16.8            Describe air handling, distribution and venting (blowers, fans, seals)

    16.9            Outline the purpose of electrical and thermal safety devices

    16.10             Describe Glow Bar ignition systems  

   16.11         Discuss how cycle sequence, wiring, schematic and ladder diagrams can be used in troubleshooting electrical failures


17.0            Combination Washer/Dryer


   17.1            Explain the theory of operation of combination washer/dryers

   17.2            Discuss the purposes of combination washer/dryers


18.0            Dishwashers


    18.1             Explain dishwasher theory of operation

    18.2             Describe Installation requirements

    18.3             Explain water distribution from inlet to tub including wash cycle and draining. 

    18.4             Explain water hardness/temperature/detergent and wetting agents. Explain how detergents affect washing performance

    18.5             Describe the operation of timers, mechanical and electronic types.

    18.6             Identify Option, float and selector switches. Discuss the operation of each

    18.7             Identify water system components and controls such as fill valves, drain hoses, check valves, siphon breaks, etc. Discuss the operation and

                   purposes of each

    18.8             Explain the purpose of Pumps, spray arms, food choppers, motors, filtering systems and sumps

    18.9             Describe the Dispensing systems

    18.10          Describe Drying systems used in dishwashers.

    18.11          Explain the use of Door seals and latching mechanisms

    18.12          Use schematic, wiring, timer sequence, cycle option and other diagrams and charts to diagnose dishwasher failures

 Convenience Products


19.0         Water Heaters & Dispensers


    19.1            Describe the theory of operation of domestic hot water heaters.

    19.2            Describe plumbing and installation requirements of hot water dispensers.

    19.3            Describe the safety devices used in water heaters.

    19.4            Discuss water hardness and conditioning

    19.5            Explain the combustion process in gas hot water heaters.

    19.6            Explain requirements for venting, (direct and chimney).

    19.7            Describe the operation of gas valves, thermocouples

    19.8            Explain the operation of electric heating elements and thermostats.

    19.9            Explain the filtering systems methods (i.e. reverse osmosis, carbon, rust and chemical removal).

    19.10         Describe the operation of isolation and check valves

    19.11         Describe the operation of pressure relief valves


20.0         Disposers


    20.1            Explain the operation of a food waste disposer

   20.2            Describe the differences between continuous-feed and batch type units

    20.3            Explain the operation of motor-reversing switches

   20.4            Describe the operation of motor and grinding mechanisms  


21.0         Exhaust Hoods, Venting & Air Movement


    21.1            Explain the basic operation of range top venting systems

    21.2            Describe the basic Installation requirements and limitations of range top venting system.

    21.3            Describe the operation of re-circulating, direct vent and down flow type venting.

    21.4            Describe the purpose of filters used in venting systems.

    21.5            Describe the operation the motors and blowers used in venting systems.

    21.6            Explain the purpose of the various switches and controls used with venting systems.


22.0         Central Vacuums


    22.1         Describe the basic operation of a central vacuum system including bag and bagless types.

    22.2             Demonstrate an understanding of system design & installation

    22.3             Describe the operation of motors & controls used in central vacuum systems.

    22.4             Describe the operation of motorized and powered accessories for vacuum systems.


23.0         Trash Compactors


    23.1         Explain the basic operation of a trash compactor.

    23.2             Describe the operation of ram drive systems.

    23.3             Describe the operation of electrical and mechanical controls (cycle selector and option switches).

    23.4             Explain the operation of reversing and interlock switches


24.0         Ironers


     24.1          State the functions of ironers

     24.2         Describe the operation of ironing systems  (including dry press and steam press)


 Cooking Products


25.0         Gas Cooking Principles


    25.1             Describe the safe and proper methods used in the servicing of gas appliances

    25.2             Explain the properties of natural gas and liquefied petroleum (LP) including their chemical

                       composition, heating value, specific gravity, limits of flammability, and their burning speed.

    25.3             Explain how gas pressure is measured (including normal and high altitude applications)

    25.4           Explain how supply gas flow is regulated

    25.5            Demonstrate how to correct lifting burner flames, flashback, extinction pop, floating flames, port loading,

                       an yellow tipping of flames. Primary and secondary air supplies

    25.6         Differentiate between complete and incomplete combustion. (including how primary, secondary, and excess air affects combustion)

    25.7            Describe the operation of burners (atmospheric and power), burner components (including fixed and

                       adjustable orifices), input and output ratings and gas flow rates.     

    25.8            Describe the operation of gas ignition systems and controls (standing pilot, glow bar, electronic spark for

                       both oven and surface burner systems.

    25.9            Describe leak detection and the proper use of leak detection equipment

    25.10          Describe how State and Local regulations may affect product installations

    25.11          Describe gas conversion (LP to natural gas, natural gas to LP).

    25.12          Describe the operation of timers, electronic range controls, and range clocks that are used in gas ranges, ovens,

                       and cook tops

    25.13          Describe the operation of electrical controls for gas ranges (thermostats, flame proving sensors, thermostatic protection devices, selector switches).

    25.14          Describe the operation of oven cleaning, including types of oven and range top surfaces, locking mechanisms and their associated controls.

    25.15          Describe convection gas ranges and oven cooking principles and their components (fans, controls).

    25.16              Describe down-draft gas ranges and cook tops, including installation and venting requirements

    25.17          Discuss how the effects of Carbon Monoxide are measured. (Describe venting and ventilation, including natural draft action, power vents, and

                       draft hoods

    25.18           Explain temperature limitation and proper test procedure for product surface temperatures and associated cabinet temperatures as regulated

                      by Underwriters Laboratories & AGA (American Gas Assn.)

    25.19          Describe how electrical schematics, technical drawings, switch position charts and wiring diagrams are used to troubleshoot gas ranges, ovens

                      and cook tops


26.0        Electric Cooking Principles


    26.1             Describe the safe and proper procedures used in the servicing of electric appliances

    26.2             Name the electrical controls used in electric cookers. (thermostats, selector switches, infinite switches, heat relays, heat sensors, 

                    oven temperature protection, electronic range and oven controls). Describe the operation of each

    26.3         Describe the operation of heating elements of electric ranges, ovens, and cook tops. (oven and surface elements).

    26.4         Describe the operation of Control/Safety systems associated with self-clean cycle

    26.5         Describe oven cleaning, including types of oven and range top surfaces, locking mechanisms and their

                    associated controls

    26.6         Calibrate oven temperature controls.

    26.7         Describe the operation of overheat protection systems as used in smooth-top ranges.

    26.8         Describe the purpose of seals, heat shields, insulation and gaskets in gas and electric ranges and ovens and

                    their impact on performance and surface temperatures

    26.9         Describe how electrical schematics, technical drawings, switch position charts and wiring diagrams are used to troubleshoot electric ranges, ovens

                   and cook tops  


27.0           Microwave Cooking Principles


    27.1             Describe the safe and proper servicing of microwave appliances

    27.2             Describe the operation of safety interlock systems used in microwaves

    27.3             Explain high voltage power supplies and safety precautions necessary to properly service high voltage and current supplies.

    27.4             Describe the operation of microwave oven controls (electro-mechanical and electronic timers, and humidity, weight and temperature sensors).

    27.5             Describe the operation of microwave generation systems, microwave propagation, and microwave distributions systems (magnetrons, 

                    wave-guides, stirrer blades and carrosels) 

    27.6             Describe how electrical schematics, technical drawings, wiring diagrams and switch position charts of microwave ovens are used in 

                    electrical trouble-shooting.            

    27.7             Describe survey meters, leakage, emission standards and door adjustments.

    27.8             Describe the operation of combination conventional, convection and microwave ovens.

    27.9             Describe proper venting and exhaust provisions and filter panels


28.0            Induction Cooking


    28.1             Describe the safe and proper servicing of induction ranges.

    28.2             Describe the operation of basic induction range principles, including installation requirements.

    28.3             Describe the operation of electrical controls used with induction range systems.

    28.4             Explain Cookware selection for use with an induction range.

    28.5             Describe how electrical schematics, technical drawings, switch position charts and wiring diagrams of induction ranges are used in 

                    electrical trouble-shooting


29.0            Convection Cooking


    29.1         Describe operating principles of electric ranges and ovens. State the functions of the fans and controls in the operation of electric ranges and ovens

    29.2             Explain the principles of High Velocity convection cooking


                                                            (End of Appliance Service Technician Competencies 2004)